SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____ to _____
Commission file number 1-5975
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation of organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
500 West Main Street, Louisville, Kentucky 40202
(Address of principal executive offices, and zip code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (502) 580-1000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.16 2/3 par value
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☑
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☑
The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant as of June 30, 2019 was $35,478,894,483 calculated using the average price on June 30, 2019 of $263.21.
The number of shares outstanding of the Registrant’s Common Stock as of January 31, 2020 was 132,106,497.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Parts II and III incorporate herein by reference portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A with respect to the Annual Meeting of Stockholders scheduled to be held on April 23, 2020.
INDEX TO ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2019
Some of the statements under “Business,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and elsewhere in this report may contain forward-looking statements which reflect our current views with respect to future events and financial performance. These forward-looking statements are made within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act. We intend such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, and we are including this statement for purposes of complying with these safe harbor provisions. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events, trends and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including the information discussed under the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this report. In making these statements, we are not undertaking to address or update them in future filings or communications regarding our business or results. Our business is highly complicated, regulated and competitive with many different factors affecting results.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky, Humana Inc. and its subsidiaries, referred to throughout this document as “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company” or “Humana,” is a leading health and well-being company committed to helping our millions of medical and specialty members achieve their best health. Our successful history in care delivery and health plan administration is helping us create a new kind of integrated care with the power to improve health and well‐being and lower costs. Our efforts are leading to a better quality of life for people with Medicare, families, individuals, military service personnel, and communities at large. To accomplish that, we support physicians and other health care professionals as they work to deliver the right care in the right place for their patients, our members. Our range of clinical capabilities, resources and tools, such as in‐home care, behavioral health, pharmacy services, data analytics and wellness solutions, combine to produce a simplified experience that makes health care easier to navigate and more effective.
As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately 17 million members in our medical benefit plans, as well as approximately 5 million members in our specialty products. During 2019, 82% of our total premiums and services revenue were derived from contracts with the federal government, including 15% derived from our individual Medicare Advantage contracts in Florida with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS, under which we provide health insurance coverage to approximately 701,400 members as of December 31, 2019.
Humana Inc. was organized as a Delaware corporation in 1964. Our principal executive offices are located at 500 West Main Street, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, the telephone number at that address is (502) 580-1000, and our website address is www.humana.com. We have made available free of charge through the Investor Relations section of our web site our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, and, if applicable, amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission.
This Annual Report on Form 10-K, or 2019 Form 10-K, contains both historical and forward-looking information. See Item 1A. – Risk Factors in this 2019 Form 10-K for a description of a number of factors that may adversely affect our results or business.
We manage our business with three reportable segments: Retail, Group and Specialty, and Healthcare Services. Beginning January 1, 2018, we exited the individual commercial fully-insured medical health insurance business, as
well as certain other business in 2018, and therefore no longer report separately the Individual Commercial segment and the Other Businesses category in the current year. Previously, the Other Businesses category included businesses that were not individually reportable because they did not meet the quantitative thresholds required by generally accepted accounting principles, primarily our closed-block of commercial long-term care insurance policies which were sold in 2018. The reportable segments are based on a combination of the type of health plan customer and adjacent businesses centered on well-being solutions for our health plans and other customers, as described below. These segment groupings are consistent with information used by our Chief Executive Officer, the chief operating decision maker, to assess performance and allocate resources. See Note 18 to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. - Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for segment financial information.
Our medical and specialty insurance products allow members to access health care services primarily through our networks of health care providers with whom we have contracted. These products may vary in the degree to which members have coverage. Health maintenance organizations, or HMOs, include comprehensive managed care benefits generally through a participating network of physicians, hospitals, and other providers. Preferred provider organizations, or PPOs, provide members the freedom to choose any health care provider. However PPOs generally require the member to pay a greater portion of the provider’s fee in the event the member chooses not to use a provider participating in the PPO’s network. Point of Service, or POS, plans combine the advantages of HMO plans with the flexibility of PPO plans. In general, POS plans allow members to choose, at the time medical services are needed, to seek care from a provider within the plan’s network or outside the network. In addition, we offer services to our health plan members as well as to third parties that promote health and wellness, including pharmacy solutions, provider, and clinical programs, as well as services and capabilities to advance population health. At the core of our strategy is our integrated care delivery model, which unites quality care, high member engagement, and sophisticated data analytics. Three core elements of the model are to improve the consumer experience by simplifying the interaction with us, engaging members in clinical programs, and offering assistance to providers in transitioning from a fee-for-service to a value-based arrangement. Our approach to primary, physician-directed care for our members aims to provide quality care that is consistent, integrated, cost-effective, and member-focused. The model is designed to improve health outcomes and affordability for individuals and for the health system as a whole, while offering our members a simple, seamless healthcare experience. The discussion that follows describes the products offered by each of our segments.
Our Retail Segment Products
This segment is comprised of products sold on a retail basis to individuals including medical and supplemental benefit plans described in the discussion that follows. The following table presents our premiums and services revenue for the Retail segment by product for the year ended December 31, 2019:
(dollars in millions)
Individual Medicare Advantage
Group Medicare Advantage
Medicare stand-alone PDP
Total Retail Medicare
Total premiums and services revenue
We have participated in the Medicare program for private health plans for over 30 years and have established a national presence, offering at least one type of Medicare plan in all 50 states. We have a geographically diverse membership base that we believe provides us with greater ability to expand our network of PPO and HMO providers. We employ strategies including health assessments and clinical guidance programs such as lifestyle and fitness programs for seniors to guide Medicare beneficiaries in making cost-effective decisions with respect to their health care. We believe these strategies result in cost savings that occur from making positive behavior changes.
Medicare is a federal program that provides persons age 65 and over and some disabled persons under the age of 65 certain hospital and medical insurance benefits. CMS, an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, administers the Medicare program. Hospitalization benefits are provided under Part A, without the payment of any premium, for up to 90 days per incident of illness plus a lifetime reserve aggregating 60 days. Eligible beneficiaries are required to pay an annually adjusted premium to the federal government to be eligible for physician care and other services under Part B. Beneficiaries eligible for Part A and Part B coverage under traditional fee-for-service Medicare are still required to pay out-of-pocket deductibles and coinsurance. Throughout this document this program is referred to as Medicare FFS. As an alternative to Medicare FFS, in geographic areas where a managed care organization has contracted with CMS pursuant to the Medicare Advantage program, Medicare beneficiaries may choose to receive benefits from a Medicare Advantage organization under Medicare Part C. Pursuant to Medicare Part C, Medicare Advantage organizations contract with CMS to offer Medicare Advantage plans to provide benefits at least comparable to those offered under Medicare FFS. Our Medicare Advantage, or MA, plans are discussed more fully below. Prescription drug benefits are provided under Part D.
Individual Medicare Advantage Products
We contract with CMS under the Medicare Advantage program to provide a comprehensive array of health insurance benefits, including wellness programs, chronic care management, and care coordination, to Medicare eligible persons under HMO, PPO, and Private Fee-For-Service, or PFFS, plans in exchange for contractual payments received from CMS, usually a fixed payment per member per month. With each of these products, the beneficiary receives benefits in excess of Medicare FFS, typically including reduced cost sharing, enhanced prescription drug benefits, care coordination, data analysis techniques to help identify member needs, complex case management, tools to guide members in their health care decisions, care management programs, wellness and prevention programs and, in some instances, a reduced monthly Part B premium. Most Medicare Advantage plans offer the prescription drug benefit under Part D as part of the basic plan, subject to cost sharing and other limitations. Accordingly, all of the provisions of the Medicare Part D program described in connection with our stand-alone prescription drug plans in the following section also are applicable to most of our Medicare Advantage plans. Medicare Advantage plans may charge beneficiaries monthly premiums and other copayments for Medicare-covered services or for certain extra benefits. Generally, Medicare-eligible individuals enroll in one of our plan choices between October 15 and December 7 for coverage that begins on the following January 1.
Our Medicare HMO and PPO plans, which cover Medicare-eligible individuals residing in certain counties, may eliminate or reduce coinsurance or the level of deductibles on many other medical services while seeking care from participating in-network providers or in emergency situations. Except in emergency situations or as specified by the plan, most HMO plans provide no out-of-network benefits. PPO plans carry an out-of network benefit that is subject to higher member cost-sharing. In some cases, these beneficiaries are required to pay a monthly premium to the HMO or PPO plan in addition to the monthly Part B premium they are required to pay the Medicare program.
Most of our Medicare PFFS plans are network-based products with in and out of network benefits due to a requirement that Medicare Advantage organizations establish adequate provider networks, except in geographic areas that CMS determines have fewer than two network-based Medicare Advantage plans. In these areas, we offer Medicare PFFS plans that have no preferred network. Individuals in these plans pay us a monthly premium to receive typical Medicare Advantage benefits along with the freedom to choose any health care provider that accepts individuals at rates equivalent to Medicare FFS payment rates.
CMS uses monthly rates per person for each county to determine the fixed monthly payments per member to pay to health benefit plans. These rates are adjusted under CMS’s risk-adjustment model which uses health status indicators, or risk scores, to improve the accuracy of payment. The risk-adjustment model, which CMS implemented pursuant to the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) and the Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 (BIPA), generally pays more for members with predictably higher costs and uses principal hospital inpatient diagnoses as well as diagnosis data from ambulatory treatment settings (hospital outpatient department and physician visits) to establish the risk-adjustment payments. Under the risk-adjustment methodology, all health benefit organizations must collect from providers and submit the necessary diagnosis code information to CMS within prescribed deadlines. CMS is phasing-in the process of calculating risk scores using diagnoses data from the Risk Adjustment Processing System, or RAPS, to diagnoses data from the Encounter Data System, or EDS. The RAPS process requires MA plans to apply a filter logic based on CMS guidelines and only submit diagnoses that satisfy those guidelines. For submissions through EDS, CMS requires MA plans to submit all the encounter data and CMS will apply the risk adjustment filtering logic to determine the risk scores. For 2019, 25% of the risk score was calculated from claims data submitted through EDS. CMS will increase that percentage to 50% in 2020 and has proposed to increase that percentage to 75% in 2021. For more information refer to Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data and Item 1A. - Risk Factors.
At December 31, 2019, we provided health insurance coverage under CMS contracts to approximately 3,587,200 individual Medicare Advantage members, including approximately 701,400 members in Florida. These Florida contracts accounted for premiums revenue of approximately $9.5 billion, which represented approximately 22.0% of our individual Medicare Advantage premiums revenue, or 15.0% of our consolidated premiums and services revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Our HMO, PPO, and PFFS products covered under Medicare Advantage contracts with CMS are renewed generally for a calendar year term unless CMS notifies us of its decision not to renew by May 1 of the calendar year in which the contract would end, or we notify CMS of our decision not to renew by the first Monday in June of the calendar year in which the contract would end. All material contracts between Humana and CMS relating to our Medicare Advantage products have been renewed for 2020, and all of our product offerings filed with CMS for 2020 have been approved.
Individual Medicare Stand-Alone Prescription Drug Products
We offer stand-alone prescription drug plans, or PDPs, under Medicare Part D, including a PDP offering co-branded with Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., or the Humana-Walmart plan. Generally, Medicare-eligible individuals enroll in one of our plan choices between October 15 and December 7 for coverage that begins on the following January 1. Our stand-alone PDP offerings consist of plans offering basic coverage with benefits mandated by Congress, as well as plans providing enhanced coverage with varying degrees of out-of-pocket costs for premiums, deductibles, and co-insurance. Our revenues from CMS and the beneficiary are determined from our PDP bids submitted annually to CMS. These revenues also reflect the health status of the beneficiary and risk sharing provisions as more fully described in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, titled “Medicare Part D.” Our stand-alone PDP contracts with CMS are renewed generally for a calendar year term unless CMS notifies us of its decision not to renew by May 1 of the calendar year in which the contract would end, or we notify CMS of our decision not to renew by the first Monday in June of the calendar year in which the contract would end. All material contracts between Humana and CMS relating to our Medicare stand-alone PDP products have been renewed for 2020, and all of our product offerings filed with CMS for 2020 have been approved.
We have administered CMS’s Limited Income Newly Eligible Transition, or LI-NET, prescription drug plan program since 2010. This program allows individuals who receive Medicare’s low-income subsidy to also receive immediate prescription drug coverage at the point of sale if they are not already enrolled in a Medicare Part D plan. CMS temporarily enrolls newly identified individuals with both Medicare and Medicaid into the LI-NET prescription drug plan program, and subsequently transitions each member into a Medicare Part D plan that may or may not be a Humana Medicare plan.
Group Medicare Advantage and Medicare stand-alone PDP
We offer products that enable employers that provide post-retirement health care benefits to replace Medicare wrap or Medicare supplement products with Medicare Advantage or stand-alone PDPs from Humana. These products offer the same types of benefits and services available to members in our individual Medicare plans discussed previously and can be tailored to closely match an employer’s post-retirement benefit structure.
State-based Medicaid Contracts
Our state-based contracts allow us to serve members enrolled in state-based Medicaid programs including Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, or TANF, Aged, Blind, and Disabled, or ABD, Long-Term Support Services, or LTSS, and the CMS Financial Alignment dual eligible demonstration programs. TANF and ABD programs are traditional Medicaid programs that are state and federally funded and provide cash assistance and supportive services to assist qualifying aged, blind, or disabled individuals, as well as families with children under age 18, helping them achieve economic self-sufficiency. LTSS is a state and federally funded program that offers states a broad and flexible set of program design options and refers to the delivery of long-term support services for our members who receive home and community or institution-based services for long-term care. Our contracts are generally for three to five year terms.
We have contracts to serve Medicaid eligible members in Florida and Kentucky under traditional programs, as well as contracts in Florida under the LTSS program. Prior to January 1, 2020, our Kentucky Medicaid contract was subject to a 100% coinsurance contract with CareSource Management Group Company, ceding all the risk to CareSource. Effective January 1, 2020, we terminated the reinsurance agreement with CareSource and assumed full administration of our Kentucky Medicaid contract.
Medicare beneficiaries who also qualify for Medicaid due to low income or special needs are known as dual eligible beneficiaries, or dual eligibles. The dual eligible population represents a disproportionate share of Medicaid and Medicare costs. States require special coordinating contracts for plans to offer Medicare Advantage dual eligible special needs plans, or D-SNPs. These largely operate separate from traditional Medicaid and LTSS programs. Some states are moving to support the dual eligible population by linking D-SNP participation to enrollment in a plan that also participates in a state-based Medicaid program to coordinate and integrate both Medicare and Medicaid benefits. Beginning in 2021, based on new federal requirements, states are expected to strengthen Medicaid-Medicare integration requirements for D-SNPs.
We currently serve dual eligible members under the CMS stand-alone dual eligible demonstration program in Illinois, and continue to serve other dual eligible members enrolled in our Medicare Advantage and stand-alone prescription drug plans.
Our Group and Specialty Segment Products
The Group and Specialty segment consists of employer group commercial fully-insured medical and specialty health insurance benefits marketed to individuals and employer groups, including dental, vision and life insurance benefits, as well as administrative services only, or ASO products as described in the discussion that follows. The following table presents our premiums and services revenue for the Group and Specialty segment by product for the year ended December 31, 2019:
Group and Specialty
(dollars in millions)
Fully-insured commercial group
Total premiums and services revenue
Intersegment services revenue
n/a – not applicable
Group Commercial Coverage
Our commercial products sold to employer groups include a broad spectrum of major medical benefits with multiple in-network coinsurance levels and annual deductible choices that employers of all sizes can offer to their employees on either a fully-insured, through HMO, PPO, or POS plans, or self-funded basis. Our plans integrate clinical programs, plan designs, communication tools, and spending accounts.
Our administrative services only, or ASO, products are offered to small group and large group employers who self-insure their employee health plans. We receive fees to provide administrative services which generally include the processing of claims, offering access to our provider networks and clinical programs, and responding to customer service inquiries from members of self-funded employers. These products may include all of the same benefit and product design characteristics of our fully-insured HMO, PPO, or POS products described previously. Under ASO contracts, self-funded employers generally retain the risk of financing the costs of health benefits, with large group customers retaining a greater share and small group customers a smaller share of the cost of health benefits. All small group ASO customers and many large group ASO customers purchase stop loss insurance coverage from us to cover catastrophic claims or to limit aggregate annual costs.
Employers can customize their offerings with optional benefits such as dental, vision, and life products. We also offer optional benefits such as dental and vision to individuals.
Under our TRICARE contracts with the United States Department of Defense, or DoD, we provide administrative services to arrange health care services for the dependents of active duty military personnel and for retired military personnel and their dependents. We have participated in the TRICARE program since 1996 under contracts with the DoD. Under our contracts, we provide administrative services while the federal government retains all of the risk of the cost of health benefits. Accordingly, we account for revenues under the current contract net of estimated health care costs similar to an administrative services fee only agreement. On January 1, 2018, we began to deliver services under the T2017 East Region contract. The T2017 East Region contract is a consolidation of the former T3 North and South Regions, comprising thirty-two states and approximately 6 million TRICARE beneficiaries. The T2017 East Region
contract is a 5-year contract set to expire on December 31, 2022 and is subject to renewals on January 1 of each year during its term at the government's option.
Our Healthcare Services Segment Products
The products offered by our Healthcare Services segment are key to our integrated care delivery model. This segment is comprised of stand-alone businesses that offer services including pharmacy solutions, provider services, clinical care services, and predictive modeling and informatics services to other Humana businesses, as well as external health plan members, external health plans, and other employers or individuals and are described in the discussion that follows. Our intersegment revenue is described in Note 18 to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. The following table presents our services revenue for the Healthcare Services segment by line of business for the year ended December 31, 2019:
(dollars in millions)
Clinical care services
Total intersegment revenue
External services revenue:
Clinical care services
Total external services revenue
n/a – not applicable
Humana Pharmacy Solutions®, or HPS, manages traditional prescription drug coverage for both individuals and employer groups in addition to providing a broad array of pharmacy solutions. HPS also operates prescription mail order services for brand, generic, and specialty drugs and diabetic supplies through Humana Pharmacy, Inc.
We operate full-service, multi-specialty medical centers in a number of states, including Florida, Kansas, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas, staffed by primary care providers and medical specialists with a primary focus on the senior population. We operate these clinics primarily under the Conviva, Partners in Primary Care or Family Physicians Group brands. Our care delivery subsidiaries operate our medical center business through both employed physicians and care providers, and through third party management service organizations with whom we contract to arrange for and manage certain clinical services.
We also operate a Medical Services Organization, or MSO, through Conviva that coordinates medical care for Medicare Advantage beneficiaries in Florida and Texas. This MSO provides resources in care coordination, financial risk management, clinical integration and patient engagement that help physicians improve the patient experience as well as care outcomes. Conviva’s MSO collaborates with physicians, medical groups and integrated delivery systems to successfully transition to value-based care by engaging, partnering and offering practical services and solutions.
In February 2020, Partners in Primary Care entered into a strategic partnership with Welsh, Carson, Anderson & Stowe to open a minimum of 50 additional payor-agnostic, senior-focused primary care centers over the next three
years and in 2018 we acquired Family Physicians Group, or FPG, serving Medicare Advantage and Managed Medicaid HMO patients through its senior focused clinics in Greater Orlando, Florida. Also, during 2018, we acquired the remaining equity interest in Miami, Florida based MCCI Holdings, LLC, or MCCI, a privately held management service organization and healthcare that primarily coordinates medical care for Medicare Advantage beneficiaries in Florida and Texas. See Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. - Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Clinical care services
Via in-home care, telephonic health counseling/coaching, and remote monitoring, we are actively involved in the care management of our customers with the greatest needs. Clinical care services include the operations of Humana At Home, Inc., or Humana At Home®. As a chronic-care provider of in-home care for seniors, we provide innovative and holistic care coordination services for individuals living with multiple chronic conditions, individuals with disabilities, fragile and aging-in-place members and their care givers. We focus our deployment of these services in geographies with a high concentration of members living with multiple chronic conditions. The clinical support and care provided by Humana At Home is designed to improve health outcomes and result in a higher number of days members can spend at their homes instead of in an acute care facility. At December 31, 2019, we have enrolled approximately 868,800 members, with complex chronic conditions participating in a Humana Chronic Care Program, reflecting enhanced predictive modeling capabilities and focus on proactive clinical outreach and member engagement, particularly for our Medicare Advantage membership. These members may not be unique to each program since members have the ability to enroll in multiple programs. We believe these initiatives lead to better health outcomes for our members and lower health care costs.
We have committed additional investments in our home care capabilities with our acquisition of a 40% minority interest in Kindred at Home, Inc., or Kindred at Home, and Curo Health Services, or Curo, which combined creates the nation's largest home health and hospice provider with 65% overlap with our individual Medicare Advantage business. See Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. - Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
We are committed to the integrated physical and mental health of our members. Accordingly, we take a holistic approach to healthcare, offering care management and wellness programs. These programs use our capabilities that enable us to create a more complete view of an individual’s health, designed to connect, coordinate and simplify health care while reducing costs. These capabilities include our health care analytics engine, which reviews billions of clinical data points on millions of patients each day to provide members, providers, and payers real-time clinical insights to identify evidence-based gaps-in-care, drug safety alerts and other critical health concerns to improve outcomes. Additionally, our technology connects Humana and disparate electronic health record systems to enable the exchange of essential health information in real-time to provide physicians and care teams with a single, comprehensive patient view.
Our care management programs take full advantage of the population health, wellness and clinical applications offered by CareHub, our clinical management tool used by providers and care managers across the company to help our members achieve their best health, to offer various levels of support, matching the intensity of the support to the needs of members with ongoing health challenges through telephonic and onsite programs. These programs include Personal Nurse, chronic condition management, and case management as well as programs supporting maternity, cancer, neonatal intensive care unit, and transplant services.
We offer wellness solutions including our Go365 wellness and loyalty rewards program, employee assistance program, and clinical programs. These programs, when offered collectively to employer customers as our Total Health product, turn any standard plan of the employer's choosing into an integrated health and well-being solution that encourages participation in these programs.
Our Go365 program provides our members with access to a science-based, actuarially driven wellness and loyalty program that features a wide range of well-being tools and rewards that are customized to an individual’s needs and
wants. A key element of the program includes a sophisticated health-behavior-change model supported by an incentive program.
Our Individual Commercial Segment Products
Our individual health plans were marketed under the HumanaOne brand. We offered products both on and off of the public exchange.
We discontinued substantially all off-exchange individual commercial medical plans effective January 1, 2017, and we exited our remaining individual commercial medical business effective January 1, 2018.
Other Businesses includes those businesses that do not align with the reportable segments previously described, primarily our closed-block long-term care insurance policies, which were sold in 2018. For a detailed discussion of the sale refer to Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
The following table summarizes our total medical membership at December 31, 2019, by market and product:
Group and Specialty Segment
We provide our members with access to health care services through our networks of health care providers whom we employ or with whom we have contracted, including hospitals and other independent facilities such as outpatient surgery centers, primary care providers, specialist physicians, dentists, and providers of ancillary health care services
and facilities. These ancillary services and facilities include laboratories, ambulance services, medical equipment services, home health agencies, mental health providers, rehabilitation facilities, nursing homes, optical services, and pharmacies. Our membership base and the ability to influence where our members seek care generally enable us to obtain contractual discounts with providers.
We use a variety of techniques to provide access to effective and efficient use of health care services for our members. These techniques include the coordination of care for our members, product and benefit designs, hospital inpatient management systems, the use of sophisticated analytics, and enrolling members into various care management programs. The focal point for health care services in many of our HMO networks is the primary care provider who, under contract with us, provides services to our members, and may control utilization of appropriate services by directing or approving hospitalization and referrals to specialists and other providers. Some physicians may have arrangements under which they can earn bonuses when certain target goals relating to the provision of quality patient care are met. We have available care management programs related to complex chronic conditions such as congestive heart failure and coronary artery disease. We also have programs for prenatal and premature infant care, asthma related illness, end stage renal disease, diabetes, cancer, and certain other conditions.
We typically contract with hospitals on either (1) a per diem rate, which is an all-inclusive rate per day, (2) a case rate for diagnosis-related groups (DRG), which is an all-inclusive rate per admission, or (3) a discounted charge for inpatient hospital services. Outpatient hospital services generally are contracted at a flat rate by type of service, ambulatory payment classifications, or APCs, or at a discounted charge. APCs are similar to flat rates except multiple services and procedures may be aggregated into one fixed payment. These contracts are often multi-year agreements, with rates that are adjusted for inflation annually based on the consumer price index, other nationally recognized inflation indexes, or specific negotiations with the provider. Outpatient surgery centers and other ancillary providers typically are contracted at flat rates per service provided or are reimbursed based upon a nationally recognized fee schedule such as the Medicare allowable fee schedule.
Our contracts with physicians typically are renewed automatically each year, unless either party gives written notice, generally ranging from 90 to 120 days, to the other party of its intent to terminate the arrangement. Most of the physicians in our PPO networks and some of our physicians in our HMO networks are reimbursed based upon a fixed fee schedule, which typically provides for reimbursement based upon a percentage of the standard Medicare allowable fee schedule.
The terms of our contracts with hospitals and physicians may also vary between Medicare and commercial business. A significant portion of our Medicare network contracts, including those with both hospitals and physicians, are tied to Medicare reimbursement levels and methodologies.
We offer providers a continuum of opportunities to increase the integration of care and offer assistance to providers in transitioning from a fee-for-service to a value-based arrangement. These include performance bonuses, shared savings and shared risk relationships. For some of our medical membership, we share risk with providers under capitation contracts where physicians and hospitals accept varying levels of financial risk for a defined set of membership, primarily HMO membership. Under the typical capitation arrangement, we prepay these providers a monthly fixed-fee per member, known as a capitation (per capita) payment, to cover all or a defined portion of the benefits provided to the capitated member.
We believe these risk-based models represent a key element of our integrated care delivery model at the core of our strategy. Our health plan subsidiaries may enter into these risk-based contracts with third party providers or our owned provider subsidiaries.
At December 31, 2019, approximately 1,289,100 members, or 7.7% of our medical membership, were covered under risk-based contracts, which provide all member benefits, including 1,116,000 individual Medicare Advantage members, or 31.1% of our total individual Medicare Advantage membership.
Physicians under capitation arrangements typically have stop loss coverage so that a physician’s financial risk for any single member is limited to a maximum amount on an annual basis. We typically process all claims and monitor the financial performance and solvency of our capitated providers. However, we delegated claim processing functions under capitation arrangements covering approximately 203,800 HMO members, including 196,300 individual Medicare Advantage members, or 17.6% of the 1,116,000 individual Medicare Advantage members covered under risk-based contracts at December 31, 2019, with the provider assuming substantially all the risk of coordinating the members’ health care benefits. Capitation expense under delegated arrangements for which we have a limited view of the underlying claims experience was approximately $1.9 billion, or 3.6% of total benefits expense, for the year ended December 31, 2019. We remain financially responsible for health care services to our members in the event our providers fail to provide such services.
Our accreditation assessment program consists of several internal programs, including those that credential providers and those designed to meet the audit standards of federal and state agencies as well as external accreditation standards. We also offer quality and outcome measurement and improvement programs such as the Health Care Effectiveness Data and Information Set, or HEDIS, which is used by employers, government purchasers and the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) to evaluate health plans based on various criteria, including effectiveness of care and member satisfaction.
Providers participating in our networks must satisfy specific criteria, including licensing, patient access, office standards, after-hours coverage, and other factors. Most participating hospitals also meet accreditation criteria established by CMS and/or The Joint Commission.
Recredentialing of participating providers occurs every three years, unless otherwise required by state or federal regulations. Recredentialing of participating providers includes verification of their medical licenses, review of their malpractice liability claims histories, review of their board certifications, if applicable, and review of applicable quality information. A committee composed of a peer group of providers reviews the applications of providers being considered for credentialing and recredentialing.
We maintain accreditation for certain of our health plans and/or departments from NCQA, the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC), and/or URAC. Certain commercial businesses, such as those impacted by a third-party labor agreement or those where a request is made by the employer, may require or prefer accredited health plans.
NCQA reviews our compliance based on standards for quality improvement, population health management, credentialing, utilization management, network management, and member experience. We have achieved and maintained NCQA accreditation in many of our commercial, Medicare and Medicaid HMO/POS and PPO markets and our wellness program, Go365. Humana’s pharmacy organization is accredited by URAC.
Sales and Marketing
We use various methods to market our products, including television, radio, the Internet, telemarketing, and direct mailings.
At December 31, 2019, we employed approximately 1,400 sales representatives, as well as approximately 1,400 telemarketing representatives who assisted in the marketing of Medicare, including Medicare Advantage and PDP, in our Retail segment and specialty products in our Group and Specialty segment, including making appointments for sales representatives with prospective members. We have a marketing arrangement with Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., or Wal-Mart, for our individual Medicare stand-alone PDP offering. We also sell group Medicare Advantage products through large employers. In addition, we market our Medicare and individual specialty products through licensed independent brokers and agents. For our Medicare products, commissions paid to employed sales representatives and independent brokers and agents are based on a per unit commission structure, regulated in structure and amount by CMS. For our individual specialty products, we generally pay brokers a commission based on premiums, with commissions varying by market and premium volume. In addition to a commission based directly on premium volume for sales to particular
customers, we also have programs that pay brokers and agents based on other metrics. These include commission bonuses based on sales that attain certain levels or involve particular products. We also pay additional commissions based on aggregate volumes of sales involving multiple customers.
In our Group and Specialty segment, individuals may become members of our commercial HMOs and PPOs through their employers or other groups, which typically offer employees or members a selection of health insurance products, pay for all or part of the premiums, and make payroll deductions for any premiums payable by the employees. We attempt to become an employer’s or group’s exclusive source of health insurance benefits by offering a variety of HMO, PPO, and specialty products that provide cost-effective quality health care coverage consistent with the needs and expectations of their employees or members. We use licensed independent brokers, independent agents, digital insurance agencies, and employees to sell our group products. Many of our larger employer group customers are represented by insurance brokers and consultants who assist these groups in the design and purchase of health care products. We pay brokers and agents using the same commission structure described above for our specialty products.
Since 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act and The Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, which we collectively refer to as the Health Care Reform Law, requires certain group health plans to guarantee issuance and renew coverage without pre-existing condition exclusions or health-status rating adjustments. Accordingly, certain group health plans are not subject to underwriting. Further, underwriting techniques are not employed in connection with our Medicare, military services, or Medicaid products because government regulations require us to accept all eligible applicants regardless of their health or medical history.
The health benefits industry is highly competitive. Our competitors vary by local market and include other managed care companies, national insurance companies, and other HMOs and PPOs. Many of our competitors have a larger membership base and/or greater financial resources than our health plans in the markets in which we compete. Our ability to sell our products and to retain customers may be influenced by such factors as those described in Item 1A. – Risk Factors in this 2019 Form 10-K.
Diverse legislative and regulatory initiatives at both the federal and state levels continue to affect aspects of the nation’s health care system, including the Health Care Reform Law.
Our management works proactively to ensure compliance with all governmental laws and regulations affecting our business. We are unable to predict how existing federal or state laws and regulations may be changed or interpreted, what additional laws or regulations affecting our businesses may be enacted or proposed, when and which of the proposed laws will be adopted or what effect any such new laws and regulations will have on our results of operations, financial position, or cash flows.
For a description of certain material current activities in the federal and state legislative areas, see Item 1A. – Risk Factors in this 2019 Form 10-K.
Certain Other Services
Captive Insurance Company
We bear general business risks associated with operating our Company such as professional and general liability, employee workers’ compensation, cybersecurity, and officer and director errors and omissions risks. Professional and general liability risks may include, for example, medical malpractice claims and disputes with members regarding benefit coverage. We retain certain of these risks through our wholly-owned, captive insurance subsidiary. We reduce exposure to these risks by insuring levels of coverage for losses in excess of our retained limits with a number of third-party insurance companies. We remain liable in the event these insurance companies are unable to pay their portion of the losses.
Centralized Management Services
We provide centralized management services to each of our health plans and to our business segments from our headquarters and service centers. These services include management information systems, product development and administration, finance, human resources, accounting, law, public relations, marketing, insurance, purchasing, risk management, internal audit, actuarial, underwriting, claims processing, billing/enrollment, and customer service. Through intercompany service agreements approved, if required, by state regulatory authorities, Humana Inc., our parent company, charges a management fee for reimbursement of certain centralized services provided to its subsidiaries.
As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately 46,000 employees and approximately 1,200 additional medical professionals working under management agreements primarily between us and affiliated physician-owned associations. We believe we have good relations with our employees and have not experienced any work stoppages.
Information About Our Executive Officers
Set forth below are names and ages of all of our current executive officers as of February 1, 2020, their positions, and the date first elected as an officer:
Bruce D. Broussard
President and Chief Executive Officer, Director
Vishal Agrawal, M.D.
Chief Strategy and Corporate Development Officer
Heather M. Carroll Cox
Chief Digital Health and Analytics Officer
Sam M. Deshpande
Chief Technology and Risk Officer
Susan M. Diamond
Segment President, Home Business
William K. Fleming, PharmD
Segment President, Clinical and Pharmacy Solutions
Christopher H. Hunter
Segment President, Group and Military Business
Timothy S. Huval
Chief Administrative Officer
Brian A. Kane
Chief Financial Officer
William H. Shrank, M.D., MSHS
Chief Medical and Corporate Affairs Officer
Joseph C. Ventura
Chief Legal Officer
T. Alan Wheatley
Segment President, Retail
Cynthia H. Zipperle
Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Controller
Mr. Broussard currently serves as Director, President and Chief Executive Officer (Principal Executive Officer), having held these positions since January 1, 2013. Mr. Broussard was elected President upon joining the Company in December 2011 and served in that capacity through December 2012. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Broussard was Chief Executive Officer of McKesson Specialty/US Oncology, Inc. US Oncology was purchased by McKesson in December 2010. At US Oncology, Mr. Broussard served in a number of senior executive roles, including Chief Financial Officer, Chief Executive Officer, and Chairman of the Board.
Dr. Agrawal currently serves as Chief Strategy and Corporate Development Officer, having joined the company in December 2018. Prior to joining the company, Dr. Agrawal was Senior Advisor for The Carlyle Group L.P., having held that position from October 2017 to December 2018. Previously, Dr. Agrawal was President and Chief Growth Officer of Ciox Health, the largest health information exchange and release of information services organization in the U.S. from December of 2015 to October 2018. Prior to joining Ciox Health, Dr. Agrawal served as President of Harris Healthcare Solutions from January 2013 to December 2015.
Ms. Cox currently serves as Chief Digital Health and Analytics Officer, having joined the Company in August 2018. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Cox served as Chief Technology and Digital Officer at USAA, where she led the teams responsible for designing and building personalized and digitally-enabled end-to-end experiences for USAA members. Prior to USAA, Heather was the CEO of Citi FinTech at Citigroup, Inc., helping the company adapt to a future dominated by mobile technology, and she headed Card Operations, reshaping customer and digital experience for Capital One.
Mr. Deshpande currently serves as Chief Technology and Risk Officer, having been elected to this position in August 2019, from his prior role as Chief Risk Officer. Before joining Humana in July 2017, Mr. Deshpande spent 17 years at Capital One in key leadership positions, most recently as Business Chief Risk Officer for the U.S. and international card business. He previously served as the Business Chief Risk Officer and Head of Enterprise Services for the Financial Services Division, responsible for Business Risk, Data Science, Data Quality, Process Excellence and Project Management. He also led marketing and analysis for the Home Loans, Auto Finance, and Credit Card businesses, with responsibilities for business strategy, credit, product and marketing.
Susan M. Diamond currently serves as Segment President, Home Business, having been elected to this position in July 2019. Ms. Diamond joined the Company in June 2004 and has spent the majority of her Humana career in various leadership roles in the Medicare business, with a particular passion and emphasis on growth and consumer segmentation strategies for the Company’s Individual Medicare Advantage and Stand Alone Part D offerings. Ms. Diamond also served for two and a half years as the Enterprise Vice President of Finance, where she was responsible for enterprise planning and forecasting, trend analytics and had responsibility for each of the Company’s line of business CFOs and controllers.
Dr. Fleming currently serves as Segment President, Clinical and Pharmacy Solutions, where he is responsible for Humana’s Clinical Solutions (strategy, quality, trend, and operations), Pharmacy Solutions (PBM, mail, specialty, retail), and Enterprise Clinical Operating Model, having held this position since December 2019. Prior to that, Dr. Fleming held positions of Segment President, Healthcare Services as well as President of the Company’s pharmacy business. Dr. Fleming joined the Company in 1994.
Mr. Hunter currently serves as Segment President, Group and Military Business, having been elected to this position in August 2018 after having previously served as the Company’s Chief Strategy Officer since January 2014. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Hunter served as President of Provider Markets at The TriZetto Group, Inc. from July 2012 until December 2013, and as Senior Vice President, Emerging Markets at BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee from 2009 through July 2012. While at BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee, Mr. Hunter was simultaneously President and Chief Executive Officer of Onlife Health, a national health and wellness subsidiary of BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee.
Mr. Huval currently serves as Chief Administrative Officer, having been elected to this position in July 2019, from his previous role as Chief Human Resources Officer. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Huval spent 10 years at Bank of America in multiple senior-level roles, including Human Resources executive and Chief Information Officer for Global Wealth & Investment Management, as well as Human Resources executive for both Global Treasury Services and Technology & Global Operations.
Mr. Kane currently serves as Chief Financial Officer, having been elected to this position in June 2014. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Kane spent nearly 17 years at Goldman, Sachs & Co. As a managing director, he was responsible for client relationships as well as for leading strategic and financing transactions for a number of companies in multiple industries.
Dr. Shrank currently serves as Chief Medical and Corporate Affairs Officer, having been elected to this position in July 2019, from his previous role as Chief Medical Officer. Before joining Humana in April 2019, Dr. Shrank served as Chief Medical Officer, Insurance Services Division at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, from 2016-2019, where he oversaw approximately $9 billion in annual health care expenditures for approximately 3.5 million members in Medicare, Medicaid, behavioral health, Managed Long Term Social Supports and commercial lines of business. He also developed and evaluated population health programs to further advance the medical center’s mission as an integrated delivery and financing system. Prior to that, Dr. Shrank served as Senior Vice President, Chief Scientific Officer, and Chief Medical Officer of Provider Innovation at CVS Health from 2013 to 2016. Prior to joining CVS Health, Dr. Shrank served as Director, Research and Rapid-Cycle Evaluation Group, for the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, part of CMS from 2011 to 2013, where he led the evaluation of all payment and health system delivery reform programs and developed the rapid-cycle strategy to promote continuous quality improvement. Dr. Shrank began his career as a practicing physician with Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston and as an Assistant Professor at Harvard
Medical School. His research at Harvard focused on improving the quality of prescribing and the use of chronic medications. He has published more than 200 papers on these topics.
Mr. Ventura currently serves as Chief Legal Officer. He joined the Company in January 2009 and since then has held various positions of increasing responsibility in the Company's Law Department, including most recently, Senior Vice President, Associate General Counsel & Corporate Secretary from July 2017 until February 2019.
Mr. Wheatley currently serves as Segment President, Retail, having held this position since March 2017. During his 25-year career with the Company, Mr. Wheatley has served in a number of key leadership roles, including Vice President of Medicare Service Operations and President of the East Region, one of the Company’s key Medicare geographies.
Mrs. Zipperle currently serves as Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Controller, having held this position since December 2014. Mrs. Zipperle previously served as the Vice President - Finance from January 2013 until her election to her current role, and as the Assistant Controller from January 1998 until January 2013.
Executive officers are elected annually by our Board of Directors and serve until their successors are elected or until resignation or removal. There are no family relationships among any of our executive officers.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Risks Relating to Our Business
If we do not design and price our products properly and competitively, if the premiums we charge are insufficient to cover the cost of health care services delivered to our members, if we are unable to implement clinical initiatives to provide a better health care experience for our members, lower costs and appropriately document the risk profile of our members, or if our estimates of benefits expense are inadequate, our profitability may be materially adversely affected. We estimate the costs of our benefits expense payments, and design and price our products accordingly, using actuarial methods and assumptions based upon, among other relevant factors, claim payment patterns, medical cost inflation, and historical developments such as claim inventory levels and claim receipt patterns. We continually review these estimates, however these estimates involve extensive judgment, and have considerable inherent variability because they are extremely sensitive to changes in claim payment patterns and medical cost trends. Any reserve, including a premium deficiency reserve, may be insufficient.
We use a substantial portion of our revenues to pay the costs of health care services delivered to our members. These costs include claims payments, capitation payments to providers (predetermined amounts paid to cover services), and various other costs incurred to provide health insurance coverage to our members. These costs also include estimates of future payments to hospitals and others for medical care provided to our members. Generally, premiums in the health care business are fixed for one-year periods. Accordingly, costs we incur in excess of our benefit cost projections generally are not recovered in the contract year through higher premiums. We estimate the costs of our future benefit claims and other expenses using actuarial methods and assumptions based upon claim payment patterns, medical inflation, historical developments, including claim inventory levels and claim receipt patterns, and other relevant factors. We also record benefits payable for future payments. We continually review estimates of future payments relating to benefit claims costs for services incurred in the current and prior periods and make necessary adjustments to our reserves, including premium deficiency reserves where appropriate. However, these estimates involve extensive judgment, and have considerable inherent variability that is sensitive to claim payment patterns and medical cost trends. Many factors may and often do cause actual health care costs to exceed what was estimated and used to set our premiums. These factors may include:
increased use of medical facilities and services;
increased cost of such services;
increased use or cost of prescription drugs, including specialty prescription drugs;
the introduction of new or costly treatments, including new technologies;
variances in actual versus estimated levels of cost associated with new products, benefits or lines of business, product changes or benefit level changes;
changes in the demographic characteristics of an account or market;
changes or reductions of our utilization management functions such as preauthorization of services, concurrent review or requirements for physician referrals;
changes in our pharmacy volume rebates received from drug manufacturers;
catastrophes, including acts of terrorism, public health epidemics, or severe weather (e.g. hurricanes and earthquakes);
medical cost inflation; and
government mandated benefits, member eligibility criteria, or other legislative, judicial, or regulatory changes, including any that result from the Health Care Reform Law.
Key to our operational strategy is the implementation of clinical initiatives that we believe provide a better health care experience for our members, lower the cost of healthcare services delivered to our members, and appropriately document the risk profile of our members. Our profitability and competitiveness depend in large part on our ability to
appropriately manage health care costs through, among other things, the application of medical management programs such as our chronic care management program.
While we proactively attempt to effectively manage our operating expenses, increases or decreases in staff-related expenses, any costs associated with exiting products, additional investment in new products (including our opportunities in the Medicare programs, state-based contracts, and expansion of clinical capabilities as part of our integrated care delivery model), investments in health and well-being product offerings, acquisitions, new taxes and assessments (including the non-deductible health insurance industry fee), and implementation of regulatory requirements may increase our operating expenses.
Failure to adequately price our products or estimate sufficient benefits payable or effectively manage our operating expenses, may result in a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
We are in a highly competitive industry. Some of our competitors are more established in the health care industry in terms of a larger market share and have greater financial resources than we do in some markets. In addition, other companies may enter our markets in the future, including emerging competitors in the Medicare program or competitors in the delivery of health care services. We believe that barriers to entry in our markets are not substantial, so the addition of new competitors can occur relatively easily, and customers enjoy significant flexibility in moving between competitors. Contracts for the sale of commercial products are generally bid upon or renewed annually. While health plans compete on the basis of many factors, including service and the quality and depth of provider networks, we expect that price will continue to be a significant basis of competition. In addition to the challenge of controlling health care costs, we face intense competitive pressure to contain premium prices. Factors such as business consolidations, strategic alliances, legislative reform, and marketing practices create pressure to contain premium price increases, despite being faced with increasing medical costs.
The policies and decisions of the federal and state governments regarding the Medicare, military and Medicaid programs in which we participate have a substantial impact on our profitability. These governmental policies and decisions, which we cannot predict with certainty, directly shape the premiums or other revenues to us under the programs, the eligibility and enrollment of our members, the services we provide to our members, and our administrative, health care services, and other costs associated with these programs. Legislative or regulatory actions, such as changes to the programs in which we participate, those resulting in a reduction in premium payments to us, an increase in our cost of administrative and health care services, or additional fees, taxes or assessments, may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
Premium increases, introduction of new product designs, and our relationships with our providers in various markets, among other issues, could also affect our membership levels. Other actions that could affect membership levels include our possible exit from or entrance into Medicare or commercial markets, or the termination of a large contract.
If we do not compete effectively in our markets, if we set rates too high or too low in highly competitive markets to keep or increase our market share, if membership does not increase as we expect, if membership declines, or if we lose membership with favorable medical cost experience while retaining or increasing membership with unfavorable medical cost experience, our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.
If we fail to effectively implement our operational and strategic initiatives, including our Medicare initiatives and our state-based contracts strategy, our business may be materially adversely affected, which is of particular importance given the concentration of our revenues in these products. In addition, there can be no assurances that we will be successful in maintaining or improving our Star ratings in future years.
Our future performance depends in large part upon our ability to execute our strategy, including opportunities created by the expansion of our Medicare programs, the successful implementation of our integrated care delivery model and our strategy with respect to state-based contracts, including those covering members dually eligible for the Medicare and Medicaid programs.
We have made substantial investments in the Medicare program to enhance our ability to participate in these programs. We have increased the size of our Medicare geographic reach through expanded Medicare product offerings. We offer both stand-alone Medicare prescription drug coverage and Medicare Advantage health plans with prescription drug coverage in addition to our other product offerings. We offer a Medicare prescription drug plan in 50 states as well as Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia. The growth of our Medicare products is an important part of our business strategy. Any failure to achieve this growth may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, or cash flows. In addition, the expansion of our Medicare products in relation to our other businesses may intensify the risks to us inherent in Medicare products. There is significant concentration of our revenues in Medicare products, with approximately 82% of our total premiums and services revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019 generated from our Medicare products, including 15% derived from our individual Medicare Advantage contracts with CMS in Florida. These expansion efforts may result in less diversification of our revenue stream and increased risks associated with operating in a highly regulated industry, as discussed further below.
The achievement of Star ratings of 4-Star or higher qualifies Medicare Advantage plans for premium bonuses. Our Medicare Advantage plans' operating results may be significantly affected by their star ratings. Despite our operational efforts to improve our star ratings, there can be no assurances that we will be successful in maintaining or improving our star ratings in future years. In addition, audits of our performance for past or future periods may result in downgrades to our Star ratings. Accordingly, our plans may not be eligible for full level quality bonuses, which could adversely affect the benefits such plans can offer, reduce membership and/or reduce profit margins.
If we fail to properly maintain the integrity of our data, to strategically implement new information systems, or to protect our proprietary rights to our systems, our business may be materially adversely affected.
Our business depends significantly on effective information systems and the integrity and timeliness of the data we use to run our business. Our business strategy involves providing members and providers with easy to use products that leverage our information to meet their needs. Our ability to adequately price our products and services, provide effective and efficient service to our customers, and to timely and accurately report our financial results depends significantly on the integrity of the data in our information systems. As a result of our past and on-going acquisition activities, we have acquired additional information systems. We have reduced the number of systems we operate, have upgraded and expanded our information systems capabilities, and are gradually migrating existing business to fewer systems. Our information systems require an ongoing commitment of significant resources to maintain, protect, and enhance existing systems and develop new systems to keep pace with continuing changes in information processing technology, evolving industry and regulatory standards, and changing customer preferences. If the information we rely upon to run our businesses was found to be inaccurate or unreliable or if we fail to maintain effectively our information systems and data integrity, we could have operational disruptions, have problems in determining medical cost estimates and establishing appropriate pricing, have customer and physician and other health care provider disputes, have regulatory or other legal problems, have increases in operating expenses, lose existing customers, have difficulty in attracting new customers, or suffer other adverse consequences.
We depend on independent third parties for significant portions of our systems-related support, equipment, facilities, and certain data, including data center operations, data network, voice communication services and pharmacy data processing. This dependence makes our operations vulnerable to such third parties' failure to perform adequately under the contract, due to internal or external factors. A change in service providers could result in a decline in service quality and effectiveness or less favorable contract terms which may adversely affect our operating results.
We rely on our agreements with customers, confidentiality agreements with employees, and our trade secrets and copyrights to protect our proprietary rights. These legal protections and precautions may not prevent misappropriation of our proprietary information. In addition, substantial litigation regarding intellectual property rights exists in the software industry, including litigation involving end users of software products. We expect software products to be increasingly subject to third-party infringement claims as the number of products and competitors in this area grows.
There can be no assurance that our information technology, or IT, process will successfully improve existing systems, develop new systems to support our expanding operations, integrate new systems, protect our proprietary information, defend against cybersecurity attacks, or improve service levels. In addition, there can be no assurance that additional systems issues will not arise in the future. Failure to adequately protect and maintain the integrity of our
information systems and data, or to defend against cybersecurity attacks, may result in a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
If we are unable to defend our information technology security systems against cybersecurity attacks or prevent other privacy or data security incidents that result in security breaches that disrupt our operations or in the unintended dissemination of sensitive personal information or proprietary or confidential information, we could be exposed to significant regulatory fines or penalties, liability or reputational damage, or experience a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
In the ordinary course of our business, we process, store and transmit large amounts of data, including sensitive personal information as well as proprietary or confidential information relating to our business or a third-party. We have been, and will likely continue to be, regular targets of attempted cybersecurity attacks and other security threats and may be subject to breaches of our information technology security systems. Although the impact of such attacks has not been material to our operations or results of operations, financial position, or cash flow through December 31, 2019, we can provide no assurance that we will be able to detect, prevent, or contain the effects of such cybersecurity attacks or other information security risks or threats in the future. A cybersecurity attack may penetrate our layered security controls and misappropriate or compromise sensitive personal information or proprietary or confidential information or that of third-parties, create system disruptions, cause shutdowns, or deploy viruses, worms, and other malicious software programs that attack our systems. A cybersecurity attack that bypasses our IT security systems successfully could materially affect us due to the theft, destruction, loss, misappropriation or release of confidential data or intellectual property, operational or business delays resulting from the disruption of our IT systems, or negative publicity resulting in reputation or brand damage with our members, customers, providers, and other stakeholders. In certain circumstances we may rely on third party vendors to process, store and transmit large amounts of data for our businesses whose operations are subject to similar risks.
The costs to eliminate or address cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities before or after an incident could be substantial. Our remediation efforts may not be successful and could result in interruptions, delays, or cessation of service, and loss of existing or potential members. In addition, breaches of our security measures and the unauthorized dissemination of sensitive personal information or proprietary or confidential information about us or our members or other third-parties, could expose our associates' or members’ private information and result in the risk of financial or medical identity theft, or expose us or other third-parties to a risk of loss or misuse of this information, result in significant regulatory fines or penalties, litigation and potential liability for us, damage our brand and reputation, or otherwise harm our business.
We are involved in various legal actions and governmental and internal investigations, any of which, if resolved unfavorably to us, could result in substantial monetary damages or changes in our business practices. Increased litigation and negative publicity could increase our cost of doing business.
We are or may become a party to a variety of legal actions that affect our business, including breach of contract actions, employment compensation and other labor and employment practice suits, employee benefit claims, stockholder suits and other securities laws claims, intellectual and other property claims, and tort claims.
In addition, because of the nature of the health care business, we are subject to a variety of legal actions relating to our business operations, including the design, management, and offering of products and services. These include and could include in the future:
claims relating to the methodologies for calculating premiums;
claims relating to the denial of health care benefit payments;
claims relating to the denial or rescission of insurance coverage;
challenges to the use of some software products used in administering claims;
claims relating to our administration of our Medicare Part D offerings;
medical malpractice actions based on our medical necessity decisions or brought against us on the theory that we are liable for providers' alleged malpractice;
claims arising from any adverse medical consequences resulting from our recommendations about the appropriateness of providers’ proposed medical treatment plans for patients;
allegations of anti-competitive and unfair business activities;
provider disputes over compensation or non-acceptance or termination of provider contracts;
disputes related to ASO business, including actions alleging claim administration errors;
qui tam litigation brought by individuals who seek to sue on behalf of the government, alleging that we, as a government contractor, submitted false claims to the government including, among other allegations, resulting from coding and review practices under the Medicare risk-adjustment model;
claims related to the failure to disclose some business practices;
claims relating to customer audits and contract performance;
claims relating to dispensing of drugs associated with our in-house dispensing pharmacies; and
professional liability claims arising out of the delivery of healthcare and related services to the public.
In some cases, substantial non-economic or punitive damages as well as treble damages under the federal False Claims Act, Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act and other statutes may be sought.
While we currently have insurance coverage for some of these potential liabilities, other potential liabilities may not be covered by insurance, insurers may dispute coverage, or the amount of our insurance may not be enough to cover the damages awarded. In addition, some types of damages, like punitive damages, may not be covered by insurance. In some jurisdictions, coverage of punitive damages is prohibited. Insurance coverage for all or some forms of liability may become unavailable or prohibitively expensive in the future.
The health benefits industry continues to receive significant negative publicity reflecting the public perception of the industry. This publicity and perception have been accompanied by increased litigation, including some large jury awards, legislative activity, regulation, and governmental review of industry practices. These factors may materially adversely affect our ability to market our products or services, may require us to change our products or services or otherwise change our business practices, may increase the regulatory burdens under which we operate, and may require us to pay large judgments or fines. Any combination of these factors could further increase our cost of doing business and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
See "Legal Proceedings and Certain Regulatory Matters" in Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. - Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. We cannot predict the outcome of these matters with certainty.
As a government contractor, we are exposed to risks that may materially adversely affect our business or our willingness or ability to participate in government health care programs.
A significant portion of our revenues relates to federal and state government health care coverage programs, including the Medicare, military, and Medicaid programs. These programs accounted for approximately 87% of our total premiums and services revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019. These programs involve various risks, as described further below.
At December 31, 2019, under our contracts with CMS we provided health insurance coverage to approximately 701,400 individual Medicare Advantage members in Florida. These contracts accounted for approximately 15% of our total premiums and services revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019. The loss of these and other CMS contracts or significant changes in the Medicare program as a result of legislative or regulatory action, including reductions in premium payments to us or increases in member benefits or
changes to member eligibility criteria without corresponding increases in premium payments to us, may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
At December 31, 2019, our military services business, which accounted for approximately 1% of our total premiums and services revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily consisted of the TRICARE T2017 East Region contract. The T2017 East Region contract is a consolidation of the former T3 North and South Regions, comprising thirty-two states and approximately 6 million TRICARE beneficiaries, under which delivery of health care services commenced on January 1, 2018. The T2017 East Region contract is a 5 -year contract set to expire on December 31, 2022 and is subject to renewals on January 1 of each year during its term at the government's option. The loss of the TRICARE T2017 East Region contract may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
There is a possibility of temporary or permanent suspension from participating in government health care programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, if we are convicted of fraud or other criminal conduct in the performance of a health care program or if there is an adverse decision against us under the federal False Claims Act. As a government contractor, we may be subject to qui tam litigation brought by individuals who seek to sue on behalf of the government, alleging that the government contractor submitted false claims to the government. Litigation of this nature is filed under seal to allow the government an opportunity to investigate and to decide if it wishes to intervene and assume control of the litigation. If the government does not intervene, the lawsuit is unsealed, and the individual may continue to prosecute the action on his or her own.
CMS uses a risk-adjustment model which adjusts premiums paid to Medicare Advantage, or MA, plans according to health status of covered members. The risk-adjustment model, which CMS implemented pursuant to the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) and the Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 (BIPA), generally pays more where a plan's membership has higher expected costs. Under this model, rates paid to MA plans are based on actuarially determined bids, which include a process whereby our prospective payments are based on our estimated cost of providing standard Medicare-covered benefits to an enrollee with a "national average risk profile." That baseline payment amount is adjusted to reflect the health status of our enrolled membership. Under the risk-adjustment methodology, all MA plans must collect and submit the necessary diagnosis code information from hospital inpatient, hospital outpatient, and physician providers to CMS within prescribed deadlines. The CMS risk-adjustment model uses the diagnosis data to calculate the risk-adjusted premium payment to MA plans, which CMS adjusts for coding pattern differences between the health plans and the government fee-for-service program. We generally rely on providers, including certain providers in our network who are our employees, to code their claim submissions with appropriate diagnoses, which we send to CMS as the basis for our payment received from CMS under the actuarial risk-adjustment model. We also rely on these providers to document appropriately all medical data, including the diagnosis data submitted with claims. In addition, we conduct medical record reviews as part of our data and payment accuracy compliance efforts, to more accurately reflect diagnosis conditions under the risk adjustment model. These compliance efforts include the internal contract level audits described in more detail below, as well as ordinary course reviews of our internal business processes.
CMS is phasing-in the process of calculating risk scores using diagnoses data from the Risk Adjustment Processing System, or RAPS, to diagnoses data from the Encounter Data System, or EDS. The RAPS process requires MA plans to apply a filter logic based on CMS guidelines and only submit diagnoses that satisfy those guidelines. For submissions through EDS, CMS requires MA plans to submit all the encounter data and CMS will apply the risk adjustment filtering logic to determine the risk scores. For 2019, 25% of the risk score was calculated from claims data submitted through EDS. CMS will increase that percentage to 50% in 2020 and has proposed to increase that percentage to 75% in 2021. The phase-in from RAPS to EDS could result in different risk scores from each dataset as a result of plan processing issues, CMS processing issues, or filtering logic differences between RAPS and EDS, and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, or cash flows.
CMS and the Office of the Inspector General of Health and Human Services, or HHS-OIG, are continuing to perform audits of various companies’ selected MA contracts related to this risk adjustment diagnosis data.
We refer to these audits as Risk-Adjustment Data Validation Audits, or RADV audits. RADV audits review medical records in an attempt to validate provider medical record documentation and coding practices which influence the calculation of premium payments to MA plans.
In 2012, CMS released a “Notice of Final Payment Error Calculation Methodology for Part C Medicare Advantage Risk Adjustment Data Validation (RADV) Contract-Level Audits.” The payment error calculation methodology provided that, in calculating the economic impact of audit results for an MA contract, if any, the results of the RADV audit sample would be extrapolated to the entire MA contract after a comparison of the audit results to a similar audit of the government’s traditional fee-for-service Medicare program, or Medicare FFS. We refer to the process of accounting for errors in FFS claims as the "FFS Adjuster." This comparison of RADV audit results to the FFS error rate is necessary to determine the economic impact, if any, of RADV audit results because the government used the Medicare FFS program data set, including any attendant errors that are present in that data set, to estimate the costs of various health status conditions and to set the resulting adjustments to MA plans’ payment rates in order to establish actuarial equivalence in payment rates as required under the Medicare statute. CMS already makes other adjustments to payment rates based on a comparison of coding pattern differences between MA plans and Medicare FFS data (such as for frequency of coding for certain diagnoses in MA plan data versus the Medicare FFS program dataset).
The final RADV extrapolation methodology, including the first application of extrapolated audit results to determine audit settlements, is expected to be applied to CMS RADV contract level audits conducted for contract year 2011 and subsequent years. CMS is currently conducting RADV contract level audits for certain of our Medicare Advantage plans.
Estimated audit settlements are recorded as a reduction of premiums revenue in our consolidated statements of income, based upon available information. We perform internal contract level audits based on the RADV audit methodology prescribed by CMS. Included in these internal contract level audits is an audit of our Private Fee-For Service business which we used to represent a proxy of the FFS Adjuster which has not yet been finalized. We based our accrual of estimated audit settlements for each contract year on the results of these internal contract level audits and update our estimates as each audit is completed. Estimates derived from these results were not material to our results of operations, financial position, or cash flows. We report the results of these internal contract level audits to CMS, including identified overpayments, if any.
On October 26, 2018, CMS issued a proposed rule and accompanying materials (which we refer to as the “Proposed Rule”) related to, among other things, the RADV audit methodology described above. If implemented, the Proposed Rule would use extrapolation in RADV audits applicable to payment year 2011 contract-level audits and all subsequent audits, without the application of a FFS Adjuster to audit findings. We believe that the Proposed Rule fails to address adequately the statutory requirement of actuarial equivalence, and have provided substantive comments to CMS on the Proposed Rule as part of the notice-and-comment rulemaking process. Whether, and to what extent, CMS finalizes the Proposed Rule, and any related regulatory, industry or company reactions, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, or cash flows.
In addition, as part of our internal compliance efforts, we routinely perform ordinary course reviews of our internal business processes related to, among other things, our risk coding and data submissions in connection with the risk- adjustment model. These reviews may also result in the identification of errors and the submission of corrections to CMS, that may, either individually or in the aggregate, be material. As such, the result of these reviews may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, or cash flows.
We believe that CMS' statements and policies regarding the requirement to report and return identified overpayments received by MA plans are inconsistent with CMS' 2012 RADV audit methodology, and the Medicare statute's requirements. These statements and policies, such as certain statements contained in the preamble to CMS’ final rule release regarding Medicare Advantage and Part D prescription drug benefit program regulations for Contract Year 2015 (which we refer to as the "Overpayment Rule"), and the Proposed
Rule, appear to equate each Medicare Advantage risk adjustment data error with an “overpayment” without addressing the principles underlying the FFS Adjuster referenced above. On September 7, 2018, the Federal District Court for the District of Columbia vacated CMS's Overpayment Rule, concluding that it violated the Medicare statute, including the requirement for actuarial equivalence, and that the Overpayment Rule was also arbitrary and capricious in departing from CMS's RADV methodology without adequate explanation (among other reasons). CMS has appealed the decision to the Circuit Court of Appeals.
We will continue to work with CMS to ensure that MA plans are paid accurately and that payment model principles are in accordance with the requirements of the Social Security Act, which, if not implemented correctly could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, or cash flows.
Our CMS contracts which cover members’ prescription drugs under Medicare Part D contain provisions for risk sharing and certain payments for prescription drug costs for which we are not at risk. These provisions, certain of which are described below, affect our ultimate payments from CMS.
The premiums from CMS are subject to risk corridor provisions which compare costs targeted in our annual bids to actual prescription drug costs, limited to actual costs that would have been incurred under the standard coverage as defined by CMS. Variances exceeding certain thresholds may result in CMS making additional payments to us or require us to refund to CMS a portion of the premiums we received (known as a “risk corridor”). We estimate and recognize an adjustment to premiums revenue related to the risk corridor payment settlement based upon pharmacy claims experience. The estimate of the settlement associated with these risk corridor provisions requires us to consider factors that may not be certain, including member eligibility differences with CMS. Our estimate of the settlement associated with the Medicare Part D risk corridor provisions was a net payable of $170 million at December 31, 2019 and 2018.
Reinsurance and low-income cost subsidies represent payments from CMS in connection with the Medicare Part D program for which we assume no risk. Reinsurance subsidies represent payments for CMS’s portion of claims costs which exceed the member’s out-of-pocket threshold, or the catastrophic coverage level. Low-income cost subsidies represent payments from CMS for all or a portion of the deductible, the coinsurance and co-payment amounts above the out-of-pocket threshold for low-income beneficiaries. Monthly prospective payments from CMS for reinsurance and low-income cost subsidies are based on assumptions submitted with our annual bid. A reconciliation and settlement of CMS’s prospective subsidies against actual prescription drug costs we paid is made after the end of the applicable year.
Settlement of the reinsurance and low-income cost subsidies as well as the risk corridor payment is based on a reconciliation made approximately 9 months after the close of each calendar year. This reconciliation process requires us to submit claims data necessary for CMS to administer the program. Our claims data may not pass CMS’s claims edit processes due to various reasons, including discrepancies in eligibility or classification of low-income members. To the extent our data does not pass CMS’s claim edit processes, we may bear the risk for all or a portion of the claim which otherwise may have been subject to the risk corridor provision or payment which we would have otherwise received as a low-income subsidy or reinsurance claim. In addition, in the event the settlement represents an amount CMS owes us, there is a negative impact on our cash flows and financial condition as a result of financing CMS’s share of the risk. The opposite is true in the event the settlement represents an amount we owe CMS.
We are also subject to various other governmental audits and investigations. Under state laws, our HMOs and health insurance companies are audited by state departments of insurance for financial and contractual compliance. Our HMOs are audited for compliance with health services by state departments of health. Audits and investigations, including audits of risk adjustment data, are also conducted by state attorneys general, CMS, HHS-OIG, the Office of Personnel Management, the Department of Justice, the Department of Labor, and the Defense Contract Audit Agency. All of these activities could result in the loss of licensure or the right to participate in various programs, including a limitation on our ability to market or sell products, the imposition of fines, penalties and other civil and criminal sanctions, or changes in our business practices. The outcome of any current or future governmental or internal investigations cannot be accurately predicted, nor can we predict any resulting penalties, fines or other sanctions that may be imposed at the discretion of federal or state regulatory authorities. Nevertheless, it is reasonably possible that any such outcome of
litigation, penalties, fines or other sanctions could be substantial, and the outcome of these matters may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows. Certain of these matters could also affect our reputation. In addition, disclosure of any adverse investigation or audit results or sanctions could negatively affect our industry or our reputation in various markets and make it more difficult for us to sell our products and services.
Our business activities are subject to substantial government regulation. New laws or regulations, or legislative, judicial, or regulatory changes in existing laws or regulations or their manner of application could increase our cost of doing business and may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations (including restricting revenue, enrollment and premium growth in certain products and market segments, restricting our ability to expand into new markets, increasing our medical and operating costs by, among other things, requiring a minimum benefit ratio on insured products, lowering our Medicare payment rates and increasing our expenses associated with assessments); our financial position (including our ability to maintain the value of our goodwill); and our cash flows.
The Health Care Reform Law and Other Current or Future Legislative, Judicial or Regulatory Changes
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and The Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (which we collectively refer to as the Health Care Reform Law) enacted significant reforms to various aspects of the U.S. health insurance industry. Certain significant provisions of the Health Care Reform Law include, among others, mandated coverage requirements, mandated benefits and guarantee issuance associated with commercial medical insurance, rebates to policyholders based on minimum benefit ratios, adjustments to Medicare Advantage premiums, the establishment of federally facilitated or state-based exchanges coupled with programs designed to spread risk among insurers, and the introduction of plan designs based on set actuarial values. In addition, the Health Care Reform Law established insurance industry assessments, including an annual health insurance industry fee. The annual health insurance industry fee was suspended in 2019, but will resume for calendar year 2020, not be deductible for income tax purposes, and significantly increase our effective tax rate. In 2018, the fee levied on the health insurance industry was $14.3 billion. Under current law, the health industry fee will be permanently repealed beginning in calendar year 2021.
It is reasonably possible that the Health Care Reform Law and related regulations, as well as other current or future legislative, judicial or regulatory changes, including restrictions on our ability to manage our provider network or otherwise operate our business, or restrictions on profitability, including reviews by regulatory bodies that may compare our Medicare Advantage business profitability to our non-Medicare Advantage business profitability, or compare the profitability of various products within our Medicare Advantage business, and require that they remain within certain ranges of each other, increases in member benefits or changes to member eligibility criteria without corresponding increases in premium payments to us, or increases in regulation of our prescription drug benefit businesses, may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations (including restricting revenue, enrollment and premium growth in certain products and market segments, restricting our ability to expand into new markets, increasing our medical and operating costs, further lowering our Medicare payment rates and increasing our expenses associated with assessments); our financial position (including our ability to maintain the value of our goodwill); and our cash flows.
Additionally, potential legislative changes or judicial determinations, including activities to repeal or replace the Health Care Reform Law or declare all or certain portions of the Health Care Reform Law unconstitutional, creates uncertainty for our business, and we cannot predict when, or in what form, such legislative changes or judicial determinations may occur.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH Act)
The use of individually identifiable health data by our business is regulated at federal and state levels. These laws and rules are changed frequently by legislation or administrative interpretation. Various state laws address the use and maintenance of individually identifiable health data. Most are derived from the privacy provisions in the federal Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, or HIPAA. HIPAA includes
administrative provisions directed at simplifying electronic data interchange through standardizing transactions, establishing uniform health care provider, payer, and employer identifiers, and seeking protections for confidentiality and security of patient data. The rules do not provide for complete federal preemption of state laws, but rather preempt all inconsistent state laws unless the state law is more stringent.
These regulations set standards for the security of electronic health information, including requirements that insurers provide customers with notice regarding how their non-public personal information is used, including an opportunity to "opt out" of certain disclosures. Violations of these rules could subject us to significant criminal and civil penalties, including significant monetary penalties. Compliance with HIPAA regulations requires significant systems enhancements, training and administrative effort. HIPAA can also expose us to additional liability for violations by our business associates (e.g., entities that provide services to health plans and providers).
The HITECH Act, one part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, significantly broadened the scope of the privacy and security regulations of HIPAA. Among other requirements, the HITECH Act and HIPAA mandate individual notification in the event of a breach of unsecured, individually identifiable health information, provides enhanced penalties for HIPAA violations, requires business associates to comply with certain provisions of the HIPAA privacy and security rule, and grants enforcement authority to state attorneys general in addition to the HHS Office of Civil Rights.
In addition, there are numerous federal and state laws and regulations addressing patient and consumer privacy concerns, including unauthorized access or theft of personal information. State statutes and regulations vary from state to state and could impose additional penalties. Violations of HIPAA or applicable federal or state laws or regulations could subject us to significant criminal or civil penalties, including significant monetary penalties. Compliance with HIPAA and other privacy regulations requires significant systems enhancements, training and administrative effort.
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA)
On February 17, 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, or ARRA, was enacted into law. In addition to including a temporary subsidy for health care continuation coverage issued pursuant to the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act, or COBRA, ARRA also expands and strengthens the privacy and security provisions of HIPAA and imposes additional limits on the use and disclosure of protected health information, or PHI. Among other things, ARRA requires us and other covered entities to report any unauthorized release or use of or access to PHI to any impacted individuals and to HHS in those instances where the unauthorized activity poses a significant risk of financial, reputational or other harm to the individuals, and to notify the media in any states where 500 or more people are impacted by any unauthorized release or use of or access to PHI. ARRA also requires business associates to comply with certain HIPAA provisions. ARRA also establishes higher civil and criminal penalties for covered entities and business associates who fail to comply with HIPAA’s provisions and requires HHS to issue regulations implementing its privacy and security enhancements.
Corporate Practice of Medicine and Other Laws
As a corporate entity, Humana Inc. is not licensed to practice medicine. Many states in which we operate through our subsidiaries limit the practice of medicine to licensed individuals or professional organizations comprised of licensed individuals, and business corporations generally may not exercise control over the medical decisions of physicians. Statutes and regulations relating to the practice of medicine, fee-splitting between physicians and referral sources, and similar issues vary widely from state to state. Under management agreements between certain of our subsidiaries and affiliated physician-owned professional groups, these groups retain sole responsibility for all medical decisions, as well as for hiring and managing physicians and other licensed healthcare providers, developing operating policies and procedures, implementing professional standards and controls, and maintaining malpractice insurance. We believe that our health services operations comply with applicable state statutes regarding corporate practice of medicine, fee-splitting, and similar issues. However, any enforcement actions by governmental officials alleging non-compliance with these statutes, which could subject us to penalties or restructuring or reorganization of our business, may result in a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, or cash flows.
Anti-Kickback, Physician Self-Referral, and Other Fraud and Abuse Laws
A federal law commonly referred to as the “Anti-Kickback Statute” prohibits the offer, payment, solicitation, or receipt of any form of remuneration to induce, or in return for, the referral of Medicare or other governmental health program patients or patient care opportunities, or in return for the purchase, lease, or order of items or services that are covered by Medicare or other federal governmental health programs. Because the prohibitions contained in the Anti-Kickback Statute apply to the furnishing of items or services for which payment is made in “whole or in part,” the Anti-Kickback Statute could be implicated if any portion of an item or service we provide is covered by any of the state or federal health benefit programs described above. Violation of these provisions constitutes a felony criminal offense and applicable sanctions could include exclusion from the Medicare and Medicaid programs.
Section 1877 of the Social Security Act, commonly known as the “Stark Law,” prohibits physicians, subject to certain exceptions described below, from referring Medicare or Medicaid patients to an entity providing “designated health services” in which the physician, or an immediate family member, has an ownership or investment interest or with which the physician, or an immediate family member, has entered into a compensation arrangement. These prohibitions, contained in the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, commonly known as “Stark II,” amended prior federal physician self-referral legislation known as “Stark I” by expanding the list of designated health services to a total of 11 categories of health services. The professional groups with which we are affiliated provide one or more of these designated health services. Persons or entities found to be in violation of the Stark Law are subject to denial of payment for services furnished pursuant to an improper referral, civil monetary penalties, and exclusion from the Medicare and Medicaid programs.
Many states also have enacted laws similar in scope and purpose to the Anti-Kickback Statute and, in more limited instances, the Stark Law, that are not limited to services for which Medicare or Medicaid payment is made. In addition, most states have statutes, regulations, or professional codes that restrict a physician from accepting various kinds of remuneration in exchange for making referrals. These laws vary from state to state and have seldom been interpreted by the courts or regulatory agencies. In states that have enacted these statutes, we believe that regulatory authorities and state courts interpreting these statutes may regard federal law under the Anti-Kickback Statute and the Stark Law as persuasive.
We believe that our operations comply with the Anti-Kickback Statute, the Stark Law, and similar federal or state laws addressing fraud and abuse. These laws are subject to modification and changes in interpretation, and are enforced by authorities vested with broad discretion. We continually monitor developments in this area. If these laws are interpreted in a manner contrary to our interpretation or are reinterpreted or amended, or if new legislation is enacted with respect to healthcare fraud and abuse, illegal remuneration, or similar issues, we may be required to restructure our affected operations to maintain compliance with applicable law. There can be no assurances that any such restructuring will be possible or, if possible, would not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, or cash flows.
We are subject to various federal, state, and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of human health and the environment. If an environmental regulatory agency finds any of our facilities to be in violation of environmental laws, penalties and fines may be imposed for each day of violation and the affected facility could be forced to cease operations. We could also incur other significant costs, such as cleanup costs or claims by third parties, as a result of violations of, or liabilities under, environmental laws. Although we believe that our environmental practices, including waste handling and disposal practices, are in material compliance with applicable laws, future claims or violations, or changes in environmental laws, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position or cash flows.
State Regulation of Insurance-Related Products
Laws in each of the states (and Puerto Rico) in which we operate our HMOs, PPOs and other health insurance-related services regulate our operations including: capital adequacy and other licensing requirements, policy language describing benefits, mandated benefits and processes, entry, withdrawal or re-entry into a state or market, rate increases, delivery systems, utilization review procedures, quality assurance, complaint systems, enrollment requirements, claim payments, marketing, and advertising. The HMO, PPO, and other health insurance-related products we offer are sold under licenses issued by the applicable insurance regulators.
Our licensed insurance subsidiaries are also subject to regulation under state insurance holding company and Puerto Rico regulations. These regulations generally require, among other things, prior approval and/or notice of new products, rates, benefit changes, and certain material transactions, including dividend payments, purchases or sales of assets, intercompany agreements, and the filing of various financial and operational reports.
Any failure by us to manage acquisitions, divestitures and other significant transactions successfully may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
As part of our business strategy, we frequently engage in discussions with third parties regarding possible investments, acquisitions, divestitures, strategic alliances, joint ventures, and outsourcing transactions and often enter into agreements relating to such transactions in order to further our business objectives. In order to pursue our acquisition strategy successfully, we must identify suitable candidates for and successfully complete transactions, some of which may be large and complex, and manage post-closing issues such as the integration of acquired companies or employees. Integration and other risks can be more pronounced for larger and more complicated transactions, transactions outside of our core business space, or if multiple transactions are pursued simultaneously. The failure to successfully integrate acquired entities and businesses or failure to produce results consistent with the financial model used in the analysis of our acquisitions, investments, joint ventures or strategic alliances may cause asset write-offs, restructuring costs or other expenses and may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows. If we fail to identify and complete successfully transactions that further our strategic objectives, we may be required to expend resources to develop products and technology internally. In addition, from time to time, we evaluate alternatives for our businesses that do not meet our strategic, growth or profitability objectives, and we may divest or wind down such businesses. There can be no assurance that we will be able to complete any such divestiture on terms favorable to us. The divestiture of certain businesses could result, individually or in the aggregate, in the recognition of material losses and a material adverse effect on our results of operations. In addition, divestitures may result in continued financial exposure to the divested businesses following the completion of the transaction. For example, in connection with a disposition, we may enter into transition or administrative service agreements, coinsurance arrangements, vendor relationships or other strategic relationships with the divested business, or we may agree to provide certain indemnities to the purchaser in any such transaction, each of which may result in additional expense and could have a material adverse effect on our result of operations.
If we fail to develop and maintain satisfactory relationships with the providers of care to our members, our business may be adversely affected.
We employ or contract with physicians, hospitals and other providers to deliver health care to our members. Our products encourage or require our customers to use these contracted providers. A key component of our integrated care delivery strategy is to increase the number of providers who share medical cost risk with us or have financial incentives to deliver quality medical services in a cost-effective manner.
In any particular market, providers could refuse to contract with us, demand higher payments, or take other actions that could result in higher health care costs for us, less desirable products for customers and members or difficulty meeting regulatory or accreditation requirements. In some markets, some providers, particularly hospitals, physician specialty groups, physician/hospital organizations, or multi-specialty physician groups, may have significant market positions and negotiating power. In addition, physician or practice management companies, which aggregate physician practices for administrative efficiency and marketing leverage, may compete directly with us. If these providers refuse to contract with us, use their market position to negotiate unfavorable contracts with us or place us at a competitive
disadvantage, or do not enter into contracts with us that encourage the delivery of quality medical services in a cost-effective manner, our ability to market products or to be profitable in those areas may be adversely affected.
In some situations, we have contracts with individual or groups of primary care providers for an actuarially determined, fixed fee per month to provide a basket of required medical services to our members. This type of contract is referred to as a “capitation” contract. The inability of providers to properly manage costs under these capitation arrangements can result in the financial instability of these providers and the termination of their relationship with us. In addition, payment or other disputes between a primary care provider and specialists with whom the primary care provider contracts can result in a disruption in the provision of services to our members or a reduction in the services available to our members. The financial instability or failure of a primary care provider to pay other providers for services rendered could lead those other providers to demand payment from us even though we have made our regular fixed payments to the primary provider. There can be no assurance that providers with whom we contract will properly manage the costs of services, maintain financial solvency or avoid disputes with other providers. Any of these events may have a material adverse effect on the provision of services to our members and our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
Our pharmacy business is highly competitive and subjects us to regulations in addition to those we face with our core health benefits businesses.
Our in-house dispensing pharmacy business competes with locally owned drugstores, retail drugstore chains, supermarkets, discount retailers, membership clubs, internet companies and other mail-order and long-term care pharmacies. Our pharmacy business also subjects us to extensive federal, state, and local regulation. The practice of pharmacy is generally regulated at the state level by state boards of pharmacy. Many of the states where we deliver pharmaceuticals, including controlled substances, have laws and regulations that require out-of-state mail-order pharmacies to register with that state’s board of pharmacy. Federal agencies further regulate our pharmacy operations, requiring registration with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and individual state controlled substance authorities in order to dispense controlled substances. In addition, the FDA inspects facilities in connection with procedures to effect recalls of prescription drugs. The Federal Trade Commission also has requirements for mail-order sellers of goods. The U.S. Postal Service, or USPS, has statutory authority to restrict the transmission of drugs and medicines through the mail to a degree that may have an adverse effect on our mail-order operations. The USPS historically has exercised this statutory authority only with respect to controlled substances. If the USPS restricts our ability to deliver drugs through the mail, alternative means of delivery are available to us. However, alternative means of delivery could be significantly more expensive. The U.S. Department of Transportation has regulatory authority to impose restrictions on drugs inserted in the stream of commerce. These regulations generally do not apply to the USPS and its operations. In addition, we are subject to CMS rules regarding the administration of our PDP plans and intercompany pricing between our PDP plans and our pharmacy business.
We are also subject to risks inherent in the packaging and distribution of pharmaceuticals and other health care products, including manufacturing or other supply issues that could impact the availability of such products, and the application of state laws related to the operation of internet and mail-order pharmacies. The failure to adhere to these laws and regulations may expose us to civil and criminal penalties.
Changes in the prescription drug industry pricing benchmarks may adversely affect our financial performance.
Contracts in the prescription drug industry generally use certain published benchmarks to establish pricing for prescription drugs. These benchmarks include average wholesale price, which is referred to as “AWP,” average selling price, which is referred to as “ASP,” and wholesale acquisition cost. It is uncertain whether payors, pharmacy providers, pharmacy benefit managers, or PBMs, and others in the prescription drug industry will continue to utilize AWP as it has previously been calculated, or whether other pricing benchmarks will be adopted for establishing prices within the industry. Legislation may lead to changes in the pricing for Medicare and Medicaid programs. Regulators have conducted investigations into the use of AWP for federal program payment, and whether the use of AWP has inflated drug expenditures by the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Federal and state proposals have sought to change the basis for calculating payment of certain drugs by the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Adoption of ASP in lieu of AWP as the measure for determining payment by Medicare or Medicaid programs for the drugs sold in our in-house dispensing
pharmacy business may reduce the revenues and gross margins of this business which may result in a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
If we do not continue to earn and retain purchase discounts and volume rebates from pharmaceutical manufacturers at current levels, our gross margins may decline.
We have contractual relationships with pharmaceutical manufacturers or wholesalers that provide us with purchase discounts and volume rebates on certain prescription drugs dispensed through our in-house dispensing and specialty pharmacies. These discounts and volume rebates are generally passed on to clients in the form of steeper price discounts. Changes in existing federal or state laws or regulations or in their interpretation by courts and agencies or the adoption of new laws or regulations relating to patent term extensions, and purchase discount and volume rebate arrangements with pharmaceutical manufacturers, may reduce the discounts or volume rebates we receive and materially adversely impact our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
Our ability to obtain funds from certain of our licensed subsidiaries is restricted by state insurance regulations.
Because we operate as a holding company, we are dependent upon dividends and administrative expense reimbursements from our subsidiaries to fund the obligations of Humana Inc., our parent company. Certain of our insurance subsidiaries operate in states that regulate the payment of dividends, loans, administrative expense reimbursements or other cash transfers to Humana Inc., and require minimum levels of equity as well as limit investments to approved securities. The amount of dividends that may be paid to Humana Inc. by these insurance subsidiaries, without prior approval by state regulatory authorities, or ordinary dividends, is limited based on the entity's level of statutory income and statutory capital and surplus. In most states, prior notification is provided before paying a dividend even if approval is not required. Actual dividends paid may vary due to consideration of excess statutory capital and surplus and expected future surplus requirements related to, for example, premium volume and product mix. Dividends from our non-insurance companies such as in our Healthcare Services segment are generally not restricted by Departments of Insurance. In the event that we are unable to provide sufficient capital to fund the obligations of Humana Inc., our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.
Downgrades in our debt ratings, should they occur, may adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Claims paying ability, financial strength, and debt ratings by recognized rating organizations are an increasingly important factor in establishing the competitive position of insurance companies. Ratings information is broadly disseminated and generally used throughout the industry. We believe our claims paying ability and financial strength ratings are an important factor in marketing our products to certain of our customers. In addition, our debt ratings impact both the cost and availability of future borrowings. Each of the rating agencies reviews its ratings periodically and there can be no assurance that current ratings will be maintained in the future. Our ratings reflect each rating agency’s opinion of our financial strength, operating performance, and ability to meet our debt obligations or obligations to policyholders, but are not evaluations directed toward the protection of investors in our common stock and should not be relied upon as such.
Historically, rating agencies take action to lower ratings due to, among other things, perceived concerns about liquidity or solvency, the competitive environment in the insurance industry, the inherent uncertainty in determining reserves for future claims, the outcome of pending litigation and regulatory investigations, and possible changes in the methodology or criteria applied by the rating agencies. In addition, rating agencies have come under regulatory and public scrutiny over the ratings assigned to various fixed-income products. As a result, rating agencies may (i) become more conservative in their methodology and criteria, (ii) increase the frequency or scope of their credit reviews, (iii) request additional information from the companies that they rate, or (iv) adjust upward the capital and other requirements employed in the rating agency models for maintenance of certain ratings levels.
We believe that some of our customers place importance on our credit ratings, and we may lose customers and compete less successfully if our ratings were to be downgraded. In addition, our credit ratings affect our ability to obtain investment capital on favorable terms. If our credit ratings were to be lowered, our cost of borrowing likely would
increase, our sales and earnings could decrease, and our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.
The securities and credit markets may experience volatility and disruption, which may adversely affect our business.
Volatility or disruption in the securities and credit markets could impact our investment portfolio. We evaluate our investment securities for impairment on a quarterly basis. This review is subjective and requires a high degree of judgment. For the purpose of determining gross realized gains and losses, the cost of investment securities sold is based upon specific identification. For debt securities held, we recognize an impairment loss in income when the fair value of the debt security is less than the carrying value and we have the intent to sell the debt security or it is more likely than not that we will be required to sell the debt security before recovery of our amortized cost basis, or if a credit loss has occurred. When we do not intend to sell a security in an unrealized loss position, potential other-than-temporary impairments are considered using variety of factors, including the length of time and extent to which the fair value has been less than cost; adverse conditions specifically related to the industry, geographic area or financial condition of the issuer or underlying collateral of a security; payment structure of the security; changes in credit rating of the security by the rating agencies; the volatility of the fair value changes; and changes in fair value of the security after the balance sheet date. For debt securities, we take into account expectations of relevant market and economic data. We continuously review our investment portfolios and there is a continuing risk that declines in fair value may occur and additional material realized losses from sales or other-than-temporary impairments may be recorded in future periods.
We believe our cash balances, investment securities, operating cash flows, and funds available under our credit agreement or from other public or private financing sources, taken together, provide adequate resources to fund ongoing operating and regulatory requirements, acquisitions, future expansion opportunities, and capital expenditures for at least the next twelve months, as well as to refinance or repay debt, and repurchase shares. However, continuing adverse securities and credit market conditions may significantly affect the availability of credit. While there is no assurance in the current economic environment, we have no reason to believe the lenders participating in our credit agreement will not be willing and able to provide financing in accordance with the terms of the agreement.
Our access to additional credit will depend on a variety of factors such as market conditions, the general availability of credit, both to the overall market and our industry, our credit ratings and debt capacity, as well as the possibility that customers or lenders could develop a negative perception of our long or short-term financial prospects. Similarly, our access to funds could be limited if regulatory authorities or rating agencies were to take negative actions against us. If a combination of these factors were to occur, we may not be able to successfully obtain additional financing on favorable terms or at all.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Our principal executive office is located in the Humana Building, 500 West Main Street, Louisville, Kentucky 40202. In addition to the headquarters in Louisville, Kentucky, we maintain other principal operating facilities used for customer service, enrollment, and/or claims processing and certain other corporate functions in Louisville, Kentucky; Green Bay, Wisconsin; Tampa, Florida; Cincinnati, Ohio; San Antonio, Texas; and San Juan, Puerto Rico.
We owned or leased numerous medical centers and administrative offices at December 31, 2019. The medical centers we operate are primarily located in Florida and Texas, including full-service, multi-specialty medical centers staffed by primary care providers and medical specialists. Of these medical centers, approximately 185 of these facilities are leased or subleased to our contracted providers to operate.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are party to a variety of legal actions in the ordinary course of business, certain of which may be styled as class-action lawsuits. Among other matters, this litigation may include employment matters, claims of medical malpractice, bad faith, nonacceptance or termination of providers, anticompetitive practices, improper rate setting, provider contract rate disputes, qui tam litigation brought by individuals seeking to sue on behalf of the government, failure to disclose network discounts and various other provider arrangements, general contractual matters, intellectual property matters, and challenges to subrogation practices. For a discussion of our material legal actions, including those not in the ordinary course of business, see “Legal Proceedings and Certain Regulatory Matters” in Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. We cannot predict the outcome of these suits with certainty.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol HUM.
Holders of our Capital Stock
As of January 31, 2020, there were 2,100 holders of record of our common stock and 229,470 beneficial holders of our common stock.
The following table provides details of dividend payments, excluding dividend equivalent rights, in 2018 and 2019, under our Board approved quarterly cash dividend policy:
On October 24, 2019, the Board declared a cash dividend of $0.55 per share that was paid on January 31, 2020 to stockholders of record on December 31, 2019, for an aggregate amount of $73 million. Declaration and payment of future quarterly dividends is at the discretion of our Board and may be adjusted as business needs or market conditions change.
In February 2020, the Board declared a cash dividend of $0.625 per share payable on April 24, 2020 to stockholders of record on March 31, 2020.
Stock Total Return Performance
The following graph compares our total return to stockholders with the returns of the Standard & Poor’s Composite 500 Index (“S&P 500”) and the Dow Jones US Select Health Care Providers Index (“Peer Group”) for the five years ended December 31, 2019. The graph assumes an investment of $100 in each of our common stock, the S&P 500, and the Peer Group on December 31, 2014, and that dividends were reinvested when paid.
The stock price performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information about purchases by us during the three months ended December 31, 2019 of equity securities that are registered by us pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act:
Total Number of
as Part of Publicly
or Programs (1)(2)
Dollar Value of
Shares that May
Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plans
or Programs (1) (2)
On July 31, 2019, we entered into an accelerated stock repurchase agreement, the July 2019 ASR, with Citibank, N.A., or Citi, to repurchase $1 billion of our common stock. On August 2, 2019, we made a payment of $1 billion to Citi and received an initial delivery of 2.7 million shares of our common stock. We recorded the payment to Citi as a reduction to stockholders’ equity, consisting of an $800 million increase in treasury stock, which reflected the value of the initial 2.7 million shares received upon initial settlement, and a $200 million decrease in capital in excess of par value, which reflected the value of stock held back by Citi pending final settlement of the July 2019 ASR. Upon final settlement of the July 2019 ASR on December 26, 2019, we received an additional 0.7 million shares as determined by the average daily volume weighted-averages share price of our common stock during the term of the agreement, less a discount, of $296.19, bringing the total shares received under the July 2019 ASR to 3.4 million. In addition, upon settlement we reclassified the $200 million value of stock initially held back by Citi from capital in excess of par value to treasury stock.
Excludes 0.2 million shares repurchased in connection with employee stock plans.
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
(dollars in millions, except per common share results)
Summary of Operating Results
Income from operations